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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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    Abstract - Issue Jul 2021, 42 (4)                                     Back


nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Mechanistic paradigms of cell death - revisited

 

S.V.S. Rana* 

 Department of Toxicology, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut-250 004, India

*Corresponding Author Email : sureshvs_rana@yahoo.com

 

Received: 04.05.2021                                                                Revised: 30.05.2021                                                         Accepted: 10.06.2021

 

 

Abstract

Present review is the description of a journey that originates from Virchows' cell theory and terminates with the role of molecular switches in cell death recently proposed by Orrenius. Landmark discoveries made, in between, to characterize regulated as well as accidental cell death have also been documented. It embraces the studies that were made in early nineties to understand cellular homeostasis in health and disease. Furthermore, the effects of foreign chemicals on different cell types witnessed in late nineties have been classified into necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy etc. Since it is important to know how a cell dies, studies made in our own and other laboratories on the role of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, redox imbalance, mitochondrial and ER stress in cell death have also   been reviewed. Possibility of a cross talk amongst these mechanisms has also been examined. It discusses the impact of wonder molecules like CYP450, GSH, metallothionein and melatonin together with enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants on cell death. Understanding the cellular targets and molecular mechanisms activated by a variety of environmental xenobiotics is fundamental for human health risk assessment. It is expected that the contents of this article will answer the fundamental question- why and how cells die.       

Key words: apoptosis, Cell death, ER stress, necrosis, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species

 

 

 

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