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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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    Abstract - Issue May 2021, 42 (3)                                     Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Decomposition of food waste from protein and carbohydrate sources by black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens L.


N.A.A. Jalil1*, S.H. Abdullah1, I.K. Ahmad2, N.E.A. Basri2 and Z.S. Mohamed2 

1Department of Earth Science and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Malaysia

2Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author Email :



Received: 14.11.2020                                                                   Revised: 17.03.2021                                                         Accepted: 26.03.2021





Aim: To determine the variability of black soldier fly larvae treatment in comparison to different sources of substrates with an emphasis on protein and carbohydrate with regards to black soldier fly larvae growth and the physico-chemical characteristics of the final compost.

Methodology: The study comprised of an experimental setup, sample preparation of synthetic food waste (protein and carbohydrate source), physico-chemical and nutrients laboratory test and analysis of data.

Results: The results showed that larvae that compost protein food sources are likely to be bigger than larvae that compost carbohydrate food sources. From the laboratory results, the amount of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and C/N ratio content of protein source compost were 266.1 µg g-1, 204.3 µg g-1, 28.6 µg g-1 and 0.51 µg g-1 respectively. Whereas, the physico-chemical results for the carbohydrate source compost were 55.1 µg g-1, 20.5 µg g-1, 2.3 µg g-1 and 3.33 µg g-1 respectively.      

Interpretation: Black soldier fly larvae prefer to accumulate protein food residues rather than carbohydrate food residues, thus emphasizing that protein content is vital for their growth. The increase in potassium, phosphorus and magnesium for black soldier fly larvae yield compost can potentially produce organic solid fertilizer for farming and agricultural industries. The unfavourable nutrients from food waste is considered to be a significant factor that can affect the development, production and efficiency of life stage of composting black soldier fly larvae.      

Key words: Black soldier fly larvae, Carbohydrate, Composting, Food waste,  Protein





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