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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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    Abstract - Issue May 2021, 42 (3)                                     Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Prediction of leopard habitat suitability in Taman Negara main forest complex, Malaysia


N.F. Khodri1, T. Lihan1*, M.A. Mustapha1, T.M. Taher1, N.A.T. Arifin1, N.I. Abdullah2 and S.M. Nor2 

1Earth Science and Environmental Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Malaysia

2Biological Science and Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600,Bangi, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author Email :



Received: 14.11.2020                                                                   Revised: 17.03.2021                                                         Accepted: 26.03.2021





Aim: This research assessed the distribution of leopard to predict the habitat suitability in Taman Negara National Park and adjacent forest area.

Methodology: Environmental factors for habitat suitability were derived from geographical information system (GIS) data such as elevation, slope, land-use, distance from urban and distance from river. Leopard presence data from 1993 to 2008 were integrated with the environmental parameters using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling to assess habitat suitability across the study area.

Results: The results showed that distance from river contributed the most (39.3%) in the habitat suitability modeling followed by distance from urban (31.4%), elevation (12.3%), land use types (10.1%), and slope (6.9%). Distance from river and urban showed highest contribution that influenced leopard distribution in which most suitable habitat occurred in proximity with river and further from urban. Habitat suitability of leopard were distributed among 48% over 2,218,389 ha of the study area.      

Interpretation: The findings of this study provides knowledge on how the species move and exploit different habitat niches for more effective conservation management. It provide models for future wildlife conservation and urban planning.      

Key words: Habitat suitability, Leopard, Geographical information system





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