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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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    Abstract - Issue May 2014, 35 (3)                                     Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Drying, burning and emission characteristics of beehive

charcoal briquettes: An alternative household fuel of

Eastern Himalayan Region 


S. Mandal1*, Arvind Kumar1, R.K. Singh1, S.V. Ngachan1 and K. Kundu2

1Division of Agricultural Engineering, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam - 793 103, India

2Department of Biofuel, MERADO, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute- CSIR, Ludhiana-141 006 , India

*Corresponding Author E-mail:




Publication Data

Paper received:

26 September 2012


Revised received:

25 May 2013


Re-revised received:

25 July 2013



19 August 2013



Beehive charcoal briquettes were produced from powdered charcoal in which soil was added as binder. It was found to be an eco-friendly, clean and economic alternative source of household fuel for the people of Eastern Himalayan Region. Experiments were conducted to determine natural drying behaviour, normalised burn rate, temperature profile and emission of CO, CO2, UBHC (unburnt hydrocarbons) and NOx of beehive briquettes prepared from 60:40; 50:50 and 40:60 ratios of charcoal and soil. It was observed that under natural drying conditions (temperature, humidity) briquettes took 433 hr to reach equilibrium moisture content of 5.56?10.29 %.? Page's model was found suitable to describe the drying characteristics of all three combinations. Normalised burn rate varied between 0.377?0.706% of initial mass min-1. Total burning time of briquette ranged between 133?143 min. The peak temperature attained by briquettes ranged from 437 ?C to 572 ?C.? All the briquette combinations were found suitable for cooking and space heating. Emission of CO, CO2, UBHC, NO and NO2 ranged between 68.4?107.2, 922?1359, 20.9?50.8, 0.19?0.29 and 0.34?0.64 g kg-1, respectively which were less than firewood. ? 


 Key words

Beehive briquette, Burn rate, Emission, Natural drying, Renewable fuel, Temperature profile 



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