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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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        Abstract - Issue Jan 2013, 34 (1)                                                                                                             Back

nstantaneous and historical temperature effects on a-pinene

Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant

(Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary,

Odisha, India


Kalpana K. Mohapatra*, A.K. Patra and D.S. Paramanik

Environmental Research Laboratory, PG Department of Zoology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751 004, India

*Corresponding Author email :*




Publication Data

Paper received:

03 March 2011


Revised received:

17 December 2011


Re-revised received:

16 February 2012



22 March 2012



The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiana, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area.


Key words

Asiatic elephant, Feeding behaviour, Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary


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