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Journal of Environmental Biology

pISSN: 0254-8704 ; eISSN: 2394-0379 ; CODEN: JEBIDP

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    Abstract - Issue May 2010, 31 (3)                                     Back


Tolerance and accumulation of lead in Vetiveria zizanioides

and its effect on oil production


P. Rotkittikhun1, M. Kruatrachue*2, P. Pokethitiyook1 and A.J.M. Baker3


1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok - 10400, Thailand

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mahidol University International College,

Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok - 10400, Thailand

3School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia

(Received: March 14, 2009; Revised received: August 18, 2009; Accepted: September 31, 2009)


Abstract: Experiments were conducted to evaluate lead tolerance and accumulation in vetiver grass Vetiveria zizanioides (L.), grown in hydroponics and a pot study and to examine the effect of lead on vetiver oil production. Elevated concentrations of lead decreased the length of shoots and roots of plants. However, vetiver grown in highly contaminated soils showed no apparent phytotoxicity symptoms. Lead concentrations in the shoots and roots of vetiver plants grown in hydroponics were up to 144 and 19530 mg kg-1? and those grown in soil were 38 and 629 mg kg-1,? respectively. Lead had an effect on vetiver oil production and composition by stimulating oil yield and the number of its constituents. Oil yield ranged from 0.4-1.3%; the highest yields were found in plants grown in nutrient solution with 100 mg Pb l-1 for 5 weeks (1.29%) and 7 weeks (1.22%). The number of total constituents of vetiver oil also varied between 47-143 compounds when lead was present in the growth medium. The highest number (143) was found in plants grown in soil spiked with 1000 mg Pb kg-1. The predominant compound was khusimol (10.7-18.1%) followed by (E)-isovalencenol (10.3-15.6%). Our results indicated that lead could increase the oil production of vetiver.

Key words: Lead, Tolerance, Accumulation, Vetiveria zizanioides, Vetiver oil

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